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Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander. Convenio con Colegio de Economistas de Lima. The different activities that people and enterprises carry out imply several private costs and in some cases external costs thus private costs and social costs are not always equal. An example of such situation can be a cement manufacturer located near a residential area. In this case the private costs imply work force, materials, depreciation, rent, etc. This manufacturer aims to increase his benefits, when his marginal-revenue equals his marginal private cost but this decision may gestion riesgo forex be economically efficient if the external costs or externalities that this activity causes to other people and firms are not taken into consideration.

An externality is defined as the effect of economic activities of one party to another party, that the price system does not consider Nicholson. Externalities occur when private costs and social costs are not equal.

Externalities can be either positive or negative. In this way, the cement manufacturer for example when he does not take into account all the pollution resulting from his activity and how it affects the near areas or other near manufacturers, he is creating a situation in which the social cost is gestion riesgo forex than the private cost.

In the graph, we can observe the marginal private cost. Under the supposition that the manufacturer participates in a competitive market, he would produce the amount Qo of cement per unit gestion riesgo forex time, because that is the point where he increases the profits, but at such level of production we can clearly observe that the marginal cost is higher as a consequence of the cost that implies pollution.

At the level of production Qo the external cost is represented by gestion riesgo forex distance from A to B. In this example of the manufacturer of cement, the problem basically consists in how to achieve the best use of the air, which represents a resource that lacks of property rights perceiving this right as the legal one that determines who owns a good and how that good is used because nobody owns the air.

Gestion riesgo forex many the solution should be to eliminate pollution completely which would probably imply to close this cement industry. However, this would gestion riesgo forex be the best solution because the same houses that have been affected by this industry have been favoured by it in the sense gestion riesgo forex they were built with the material produced by it cement.

Therefore, gestion riesgo forex is not efficient either gestion riesgo forex eliminate pollution completely but to find an appropriate or acceptable level of pollution. According to the last graph, the cement producer maximizes his benefits in point A, with the amount Qa of pollution where his marginal profit is zero in other words his marginal cost and his marginal revenue are not equal At this level of production, the marginal social cost is represented by the distance form A to B, resulting in an inefficient outcome because the marginal social cost is greater than the marginal profit.

At the level of pollution Qe, the marginal social gestion riesgo forex and the marginal gestion riesgo forex are equal therefore it would be a level of efficient pollution. For an outcome like the previous one to have effect it is required any kind of property right over air that encourages any agreement between the neighbourhood and the factory which may indemnify them for the pollution caused or provide any other solution.

However, such agreement would be possible to reach because it implies huge costs. For this reason, governments set regulations, pollution charges, permissions and taxes which represent methods to achieve the outcome previously explained if they are implemented in the right way. In addition to the negative consequences of smoking to the smoker, there are a number of external costs related to discomfort, irritation, and damages to the health of people around them, I mean the passive smokers.

Tobacco consumption, passive smoking gestion riesgo forex involuntary smoking is gestion riesgo forex the main cause of premature death in the world. Tobacco represents a big treat to the gestion riesgo forex of children because it not only brings about diseases like asthma and congenital defects but also due to it maybe parents do not have enough money to pay the education of their children and medical assistance since they spend money in cigarettes.

According to a web page of IAFA related to programs against smoking, in Costa Rica the passive smoking is responsible for a number of children diseases every year: This mean that in Costa Rica around children examinations take place per year due to the negative effects of adult smoking on children in addition to 20 hospitalizations at a cost of six hundred millions of colones per year. According to the economic theory and as it was explained in gestion riesgo forex example of the cement manufacturer, smokers and non smokers are trying to use the same good, air, which does not belong to any of them.

The discomfort that the smokers cause to non smokers is an example of an externality therefore smokers should be indemnified in some way or there should be some agreement or regulation that avoid such situation. On that score, there are some solutions. In spite of all these possible solutions it is very difficult to achieve that smokers do not affect non smokers, in any way. A big problem related to smoking is the beginning of this precocious habit, which is a strong tendency in Costa Rica during the last years as well as a greater incidence of smoking in women.

Costa Rica is not the exception. Nowadays it is very common gestion riesgo forex see young people smoking at bars, academic institutions, among others. This not only affects them but also gestion riesgo forex their classmates who even when they do not smoke they become passive smokers. The sample was constituted by In addition some students from different majors were excluded form the study.

The data processing was gestion riesgo forex out with SPSS, which is a specialized software for data processing in the field of social sciences.

Gestion riesgo forex the study we concluded that Many considered themselves social smokers, in other words they smoke with their friends and classmates during parties or social gatherings. The following chart describes deeply this data, showing the few differences between men and women. Most o the women considered themselves social and occasional smokers.

Gestion riesgo forex favourite places to smoke are: Certainly a great percentage of students from ULACIT and probably from all the universities smoke in the campus affecting the rest of their classmates.

According to the interviews the majority of smokers are aware of the negative consequences that hey bring about to the non smokers. Is there something positive? ULACIT is a well known institution due to its gestion riesgo forex name, in addition it is an organization highly interested in human promotion as well as in promoting a greater quality life to its students and to the country in general.

The best part gestion riesgo forex that students are willing to stop smoking and the university may have some resources to achieve that goal. How to achieve in gestion riesgo forex best way and at the less possible cost could be the objective for another study however, it is not so difficult.

It would be important to prohibit smoking in the lobbies and other areas gestion riesgo forex to gestion riesgo forex to great extent the smoking areas but this is a partial solution because they still can freely smoke out of the campus.

Recently ULACIT has been providing psychological assistance to students which may represent another option by a similar system the university could make groups and through conferences and different techniques help smoking and non smoking students to breathe cleaner air. For example, restaurants have the smoking area and the non smoking area. This represent a substantial source of fiscal income Other: Every day half package or more.

Every day half package or less. At least once a week but less than once a day. Occasionally approximately once a month. Prentice Hall Hispanoamericana, El tabaco y las adolescentes:

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Events that are unfolding in Kerala hold significance for the entire country. Firstly it reveals the extent to which forces are trying to decide the fate of a common natural heritage like the Western Ghats through short sighted political means. Secondly it reveals the lack of democratic process by which the people of a region as diverse and ecologically significant as the Western Ghats are not taken into confidence by the Governments while introducing a new governance process.

Thirdly the Western Ghats and the two reports on it has become the oven hot political weapon in an election year for Kerala.