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This document describes the binary utilities binutils , the set of tools used for compiling, inspecting, and transforming binaries machine code files. Other, more specialized ones, might be new to you. Learning these tools and what they can do will greatly improve your productivity as a programmer. This guide refers to each tool with its short name e. For example, gcc on a myth machine is a version of the Gnu C Compiler for Linux on an x86 processor.

These tools are prefixed with arm-none-eabi. So you want to use arm-none-eabi-ld not ld. This section discusses the core utilities that you use very often: This is the assembler.

It takes assembly code human readable text of machine code and turns it into a binary that a processor can execute. When you invoke gcc and tell it to generate a binary e. Almost all executables you run in Linux, for example, are ELF. ELF includes not only machine code the E part but also symbols , names that provide information on where different variables and functions reside see nm and objdump below. That way, when you compile a program that invokes the library function, binutils can find where it is and link the two files together correctly see ld below.

Just as the input to as might not be a executable program, the output of as might not be executable. For example, a library is a set of functions that other programs can call, but does not have any entry point main function.

It can also be that the compiled assembly code references functions that are in another binary file. For example, your program that calls a library, when compiled into machine code, does not have the actual instructions of those library calls. The tool that takes multiple binary files and links them together is ld , described below. This tells the assembler that code.

If you do not include -o code. If you do not include code. These two invocations are therefore equivalent:. For example, when you have a library written in multiple source files, you typically compile each source file independently into an ELF object file, then link all of those files together into a larger ELF object file for the library. When you compile a program that uses the library, you compile your program code into one or more object files, then link those against the library, producing a final executable.

The linker operates by resolving symbols. Whenever your code creates or uses a name that is not on the stack e. Some symbols, such as those your program defines, are resolved and exist. For example, when you define a variable int a; in global scope, this creates a symbol for a , which says at what memory address a resides.

When the linker links your program to the library, it sees that f is an unresolved symbol, sees that f is defined in the library, then fixes the binary code in your program so that when it calls f it jumps to where f exists. This takes two object files, links them together, and outputs the result as code. When you invoke GCC without the -c option, it typically runs ld as its last step. The most commonly used options for ld are -l and -L. The -l option tells ld to link a library, which is basically just an object file.

The -L option tells ld what directories to look for libraries in. You can pass multiple -l and -L options. Displays the symbol table of a binary file. It takes one or more file names as parameters and outputs their symbol tables. The output looks like this:. The first column states the address of the symbol. For a function, this is the first instruction to jump to when you call the function. For a variable, this is its location in memory. The second column states what kind of symbol it is.

So in the above example, the object file defines a function f , a function main , and a variable a. Lists the size of sections and total size of object files. Can be invoked on multiple files at once simply by listing the desired files,. Under text you see the size of the actual machine code that makes up your program. Similarly to the symbol types listed under nm above, the data section is the size of storing your initialized global variables, and bss is the size of storing your uninitialized global variables.

The options for the size command are mostly to change the format of the output. For example, to see the section sizes in hexadecimal, use the -x option size -x test. You can also specify the file type if it is not automatically recognized. For example if you want to know the size of a raw binary file, you could use. Prints text strings embedded in the input file. For example, if you wanted to search an object file for a particular string, you could call strings and pipe the result to grep, like this:.

By default, strings looks for strings of at least 4 printable characters followed by a NUL character indicating the end of a string. To set a minimum string length other than 4, use the -n option. Removes symbols from object files. Symbols indicate where in memory variables and functions reside, see ld above.

By stripping out symbol tables and debug information, strip decreases the size of object files. Compare the file before and after you strip it using nm above. You will find that the symbols have been removed. Transforms binary objects between different formats.

For example, you can use objcopy to transform an ELF executable which has symbols and all kinds of other information into a simple binary. The principal options to objcopy are -O and -I , which specify the output and input formats. Example formats are elfbigarm, ihex, and binary. In its most basic use, objcopy just makes a copy of the file.

Displays information about object files. To use objdump , you must specify at least one of the many options, which indicate what type of information you would like to view. There are many different options, check out man objdump to see what it can show.

A very useful option is the -d option, which allows you to view the assembly instructions associated with the executable part of the binary file -d is for dissassemble:.

Allows you to create, modify, and extract archives. Archives are single files holding collections of other usually binary files, similar to a zip or tar file.

The linker see ld above is often used to link to functions in these archive library files. To create an archive from object files, use the cr or crs options, followed by your object files. The c option means it will not warn you that it needs to create the library since that is what you are trying to do. The r option says to insert the new files or replace existing ones. If you specify the s option, the archive maintains an index to all symbols defined in files in the archive to allow for quicker linking to the library functions.

Then you can link to this library by specifying -ltest in the ld command see ld above. For more options on how to modify archives, see man ar or ar --help. Toggle navigation CSe Spring Binary Utilities binutils This document describes the binary utilities binutils , the set of tools used for compiling, inspecting, and transforming binaries machine code files. Core utilities This section discusses the core utilities that you use very often: The most common use of as is as follows: