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Digital rights management DRM is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. The use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents options trading strategy ppt filetype DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied freely, just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen, [3] that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control[4] and that it can ensure continued revenue streams.

Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, and the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention. The term DRM is also sometimes referred to as " copy protection ", "technical protection measures", "copy prevention", or "copy control", although the correctness options trading strategy ppt filetype doing so is disputed.

The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations, particularly within the music and movie industries. While analog media inevitably lost quality with each copy generationand in some cases even during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality. The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media which may or may not be copyrighted originally in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form this process is called ripping for portability or viewing later.

This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media also called digital piracy much easier.

The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and also enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder. The underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be completely unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would actually be encouraged to do so.

Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements: The access to digital materials, copyright and public domain is restricted to consumers as options trading strategy ppt filetype condition of entering a website or when downloading software. DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing. These technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content legally, such as by fair use.

DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry e. Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig 's coffeemakers[19] [20] Philips ' light bulbs[21] [22] mobile options trading strategy ppt filetype power chargers[23] [24] [25] and John Deere 's tractors. Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server.

Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be 'recovered' when the game is uninstalled. This not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes seeing as the rights of the software developers allow them to limit the number of installationsbut can also prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game potentially unusable after a certain period even if it is only used on a single computer.

The use of the DRM scheme in 's Spore backfired and there were protests, resulting in a considerable number of users seeking an unlicensed version instead. This backlash against the three-activation limit was a significant factor in Spore becoming the most pirated game inwith TorrentFreak compiling a "top 10" list with Spore topping the list.

Many mainstream publishers continued to rely on online DRM throughout the later half of and earlyincluding Electronic ArtsUbisoftValveand AtariThe Sims 3 being a notable exception in the case of Electronic Arts. Ubisoft formally announced a return to online authentication on 9 Februarythrough its Uplay online gaming platform, starting with Silent Hunter 5The Settlers 7and Assassin's Creed II. The software did this by emulating a Ubisoft server for the game.

Later that month, a real crack was released that was able to remove the connection requirement altogether. Other developers, such as Blizzard Entertainment are also shifting to a strategy where most of the game logic is on the "side" or taken care of by the servers of the game maker. Blizzard uses this strategy for its game Diablo III and Electronic Arts used this same strategy with their reboot of SimCitythe necessity of which has been questioned.

Bohemia Interactive have used a form of technology since Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisiswherein if the game copy is suspected of being unauthorized, annoyances like guns losing their accuracy or the players being turned into a bird are introduced. Croteamthe company that released Serious Sam 3: BFE in Novemberimplemented a different form of DRM wherein, instead of displaying error messages that stop the illicit version of the game from running, it causes a special invincible foe in the game to appear and constantly attack the player until he or she is killed.

One of the oldest and least complicated DRM protection methods for computer and Nintendo NES games was when the game would pause and prompt the player to look up a certain page in a booklet or manual that came with the game; if the player lacked access to such material, they would not be able to continue the game. A product keya typically alphanumerical serial number used to represent a license to a particular piece of software, serve a similar function.

During the installation process or launch for the software, the user is asked to input the key; if the key correctly corresponds to a valid license typically via internal algorithmsthe key is accepted, then the user who bought the game can continue. In modern practice, product keys are typically combined with other DRM practices such as online "activation"as the software could be cracked to run without a product key, or " keygen " programs could be developed to generate keys that would be accepted.

IRM typically integrates with content management system software but corporations such as Samsung Electronics also develop their own custom DRM systems. DRM has been used by organizations such as the British Library in its options trading strategy ppt filetype electronic delivery service to permit worldwide access to substantial numbers of rare and in many cases unique documents which, for legal reasons, were previously only available to authorized individuals actually visiting the Library's document centre at Boston Spa in England.

Electronic books read on a personal computer, options trading strategy ppt filetype an e-book reader or e-reader app typically use DRM technology to limit copying, printing, and sharing of e-books.

E-books are usually limited to be used on a limited number of reading devices, and some e-publishers prevent any copying or printing. Some commentors believe DRM makes e-book publishing complex. In one instance of DRM that caused a rift with consumers, Amazon.

Manufacturers of DVD players must options trading strategy ppt filetype this technology and implement it in their devices so that they can decrypt the encrypted content to play it. The CSS options trading strategy ppt filetype agreement includes restrictions on how the DVD content is played, including what outputs are permitted and how such permitted outputs are made available.

This keeps the encryption intact as the video material is played out to a TV. The legality of DeCSS is options trading strategy ppt filetype Also inMicrosoft released Windows Media DRMwhich read instructions from media files in a rights management language that stated what the user may do with the media. PVP tries to stop DRM-restricted content from playing while unsigned software is running, in order to prevent the unsigned software from accessing the content.

Additionally, PVP can encrypt information during transmission to the monitor or the graphics cardwhich makes it more difficult to make unauthorized recordings. Founded inby five companies: Therefore, they all lack the CD logotype found on discs which follow the standard known as Red Book. These CDs cannot be played on all CD players or personal computers.

Personal computers running Microsoft Windows sometimes even crash when attempting to play the CDs. Among other things, the installed software included a rootkitwhich created a severe security vulnerability others could exploit. When the nature of the DRM involved was made public much later, Sony BMG initially minimized the significance of the vulnerabilities its software had created, but options trading strategy ppt filetype eventually compelled to recall millions of CDs, and released several attempts to patch the surreptitiously included software to at least remove the rootkit.

Several class action lawsuits were filed, which were ultimately settled by agreements to provide affected consumers with a cash payout or album downloads free of DRM. Sony BMG's DRM software actually had only a limited ability to prevent copying, as it affected only playback on Windows computers, not on other equipment.

Even on the Windows platform, users regularly options trading strategy ppt filetype the restrictions. And, while the Sony BMG DRM technology created fundamental vulnerabilities in customers' computers, parts of options trading strategy ppt filetype could be trivially bypassed by holding down the "shift" key while inserting the CD, or by disabling the autorun feature.

In addition, options trading strategy ppt filetype tracks could simply be played and re-recorded, thus completely bypassing all the DRM this is known as the analog hole. The various services are currently not interoperable, though those that use the same DRM system for instance the several Windows Media DRM format stores, including Napster, Kazaa and Yahoo Music all provide songs that can be played side-by-side through the same player program.

Almost all stores require client software options trading strategy ppt filetype some sort to be downloaded, and some also need plug-ins. Several colleges and universitiessuch as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institutehave made arrangements with assorted Internet music suppliers to provide access typically DRM-restricted to music files for their students, to less than universal popularity, sometimes making payments from student activity fee funds.

Another is that few of these vendors are compatible with the most common portable music player, the Apple iPod. If adopted, some acrimony may decrease. Major labels have begun releasing more music without DRM. Eric Bangeman suggests in Ars Technica that this is because the record labels are "slowly beginning to realize that they can't have DRMed music and complete control over the online music market at the same time One way to break the cycle is to sell options trading strategy ppt filetype that is playable on any digital audio player.

In MarchMusicload. In an open letter, Musicload stated that three out of every four calls to their customer support phone service are as a result of consumer frustration with DRM. The first version of OMA DRM consisted of a simple rights management language and was widely used to protect mobile options trading strategy ppt filetype ringtones from being copied from the phone to other devices.

Later versions expanded the rights management language to similar expressiveness as Fairplay, but did not become widely used.

The CableCard standard is used by cable television providers in the United States to restrict content to services to which the customer has subscribed. It required that all HDTVs obey a stream specification determining whether a stream can be recorded. This could block instances of fair use, such as time-shifting. It achieved more success elsewhere when it was adopted by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project DVBa consortium of about broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software developers, and regulatory bodies from about 35 countries involved in attempting to develop new digital TV standards.

Upon publication by DVB, the technical specification was submitted to European governments in March As with much DRM, the CPCM system is intended to control use of copyrighted material by the end-user, at the direction of the copyright holder. According to Ren Bucholz of the Options trading strategy ppt filetypewhich paid to be a member of the consortium, "You won't even know ahead of time whether and how you will be able to record and make use of particular programs or devices".

Nobody has yet stepped forward to provide a Compliance and Robustness regime for the standard though several are rumoured to be in development options trading strategy ppt filetype, so it is not presently possible to options trading strategy ppt filetype implement a system, as there is nowhere to obtain the necessary device certificates. Sometimes, metadata is included in purchased media which records information such as the purchaser's name, account information, or email address.

Also included may be the file's publisher, options trading strategy ppt filetype, creation date, download date, and various notes. This information is not embedded in the played content, like a watermark, but is kept separate, but within options trading strategy ppt filetype file or stream.

This information is included as MPEG standard metadata. Digital watermarks exist since They are steganographically embedded within audio or video data during production or distribution. They can be used for recording the copyright owner, the distributor, the distribution chain or identifying the purchaser of the music. Watermarks are not complete DRM mechanisms in their own right, but are used as part of a system for copyright enforcement, such as helping provide prosecution evidence for legal purposes, rather than direct technological restriction.

Additionally, comparison of two separately obtained copies of audio using simple, home-grown algorithms can often reveal watermarks. Since the lates the trend in media consumption has been towards renting content using online streaming services, for example Spotify for music and Netflix for video content. Copyright holders often require that these services protect the content they licence using DRM mechanisms.

The United States implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCAwhile in Europe the treaty has been implemented by the European directive on copyrightwhich requires member states of the European Union to implement legal protections for technological prevention measures.

In [update]the lower house of the French parliament adopted such legislation as part of the controversial DADVSI law, but added that protected DRM techniques should be made interoperable, a move which caused widespread controversy in the United States. The Tribunal de grande instance de Paris concluded inthat the complete blocking of any possibilities of making private copies was an impermissible behaviour under French copyright law.

On 25 Aprilthe European Parliament supported the first directive of EU, which aims to harmonize criminal law in the member states. It adopted a first reading report on harmonizing the national measures for fighting copyright abuse.

If the European Parliament and the Council approve the legislation, the options trading strategy ppt filetype directive will oblige the member states to consider a crime a violation of international copyright committed with commercial purposes. The text suggests numerous measures: The EP members supported the Commission motion, changing some of the texts.

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