Double-Blind FROG

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What is Modern Optics? A nice view of modern optics has it that the subject of optics began afresh with the invention of the laser.

We'll take the laser as a pivot-point, and look backwards from its invention to the classical optics needed to understand how the laser tailors light, and forward to the quantum optics explosion that has followed. In group rick trebino wiki, we'll also review a selection from the remarkable range of currently rick trebino wiki research topics: The course should be considered a subject of basic physics literacy, particularly in optics. Basic information rick trebino wiki also course handout Textbook "Optics" 4th ed by Eugene Hecht; this is available in the Bookstore.

Recommended purchase in general, also for other courses! Other reference material is described in the rick trebino wiki handout Lectures: Robin Marjoribanks marj physics. MP MP while MP under construction If you have concerns about marking, first see the marker responsible for a given set. After this deadline a mark is recorded for each course, whether course work is completed or not a "0" is assigned for incomplete workand calculated into the GPA.

Please keep a photocopy of anything handed in. Meaning of Index of Refraction -Maxwell's equations and wave equations in vacuum; speed of light from epsilon and mu -the same in rick trebino wiki -closure by the constitutive relations -characterizing how the constitutive relations esp. He discusses many more ramifications and illustrations than we can deal with in class, though. Lecture Notes Many parts of these notes are adapted or taken from materials made available by Professor Rick Trebino at Georgia Tech -- he's done a wonderful service!

Lectures for are rick trebino wiki complete. Lecture 0 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3 plus blackboard lecture up to around here covered in Hecht Ch.

You are NOT permitted your own aid sheet. Suggest you review the one below, checking for what you think may be missing, and memorize rick trebino wiki small balance of any materials. The equation does not seem to be dimensionally consistent.

The difference is what system of units one is in -- these formulae on the problem set are in cgs, pretty standard with theorists. Physicists switch back and forth pretty commonly, and it's good to be able to recognize what 'dialect' is being used. In fact, there are several additional systems that are fairly commonly used, convenient to different particular applications like atomic physics, and in those systems certain constants like 'c' may take the value of 1.

In class I mentioned that this can come up, and wrote on the board a very useful reference: Jackson, "Classical Electrodynamics" See the appendices rick trebino wiki different systems of units for electrodynamics. What's the connection between short-wave radio reflecting from the ionosophere and total internal reflection, going from inside a piece of glass towards the air outside?

Where does a mirror reflection fit in this picture? What happens in detail is actually that there's a gradient-index as one approaches the critical density; if the beam approaches at some oblique angle to the slab, really the beam will be refracted and turned before reaching the critical density.

But rays directly incident will also suffer total internal reflection, because where the dielectric function goes to zero the critical angle for TIR goes to zero. A metallic mirror is really a high-density plasma -- the electrons are free to move, and most wavelengths will reflect.

Gold and other metallic coatings can even be used to make x-ray mirrors:

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Frequency-resolved optical gating FROG is a general method for measuring the spectral phase of ultrashort laser pulses , which range from sub femtosecond to about a nanosecond in length.

Invented in by Rick Trebino and Daniel J. Kane, FROG was the first technique to solve this problem, which is difficult because, ordinarily, to measure an event in time, a shorter event is required with which to measure it.

For example, to measure a soap bubble popping requires a strobe light with a shorter duration to freeze the action. Because ultrashort laser pulses are the shortest events ever created, before FROG, it was thought by many that their complete measurement in time was not possible.

FROG, however, solved the problem by measuring an "auto-spectrogram" of the pulse, in which the pulse gates itself in a nonlinear-optical medium and the resulting gated piece of the pulse is then spectrally resolved as a function of the delay between the two pulses. Retrieval of the pulse from its FROG trace is accomplished by using a two-dimensional phase-retrieval algorithm. FROG is currently the standard technique for measuring ultrashort laser pulses, and also popular, replacing an older method called autocorrelation , which only gave a rough estimate for the pulse length.

FROG is simply a spectrally resolved autocorrelation, which allows the use of a phase-retrieval algorithm to retrieve the precise pulse intensity and phase vs. It can measure both very simple and very complex ultrashort laser pulses, and it has measured the most complex pulse ever measured without the use of a reference pulse.

FROG and autocorrelation share the idea of combining a pulse with itself in a nonlinear medium. Since a nonlinear medium will only produce the desired signal when both pulses are present at the same time i. Autocorrelators measure a pulse by measuring the intensity of the nonlinear signal field. Estimating the pulse length requires assuming a pulse shape, and the phase of the pulse electric field cannot be measured at all.

This measurement creates a spectrogram of the pulse, which can be used to determine the complex electric field as a function of time or frequency as long as the nonlinearity of the medium is known. The signal field from the nonlinear interaction is easier to express in the time domain, however, so the typical expression for the FROG trace includes a Fourier transform.

The expression for the trace in terms of the pulse field is then:. There are many possible variations on this basic setup. If a well-known reference pulse is available, then it may be used as a gating pulse instead of a copy of the unknown pulse.

In addition, other non-linear effects besides second harmonic generation may be used, such as third harmonic generation THG or polarization gating PG. In a typical multi-shot FROG setup, the unknown pulse is split into two copies with a beamsplitter. One copy is delayed by a known amount relative to the other.

Both pulses are focused to the same point in a nonlinear medium, and the spectrum of the nonlinear signal is measured with a spectrometer. This process is repeated for many delay points.

A FROG measurement can be performed on a single shot with some minor adjustments. The two pulse copies are crossed at an angle and focused to a line instead of a point. This creates a varying delay between the two pulses along the line focus.

In this configuration, it is common to use a home-made spectrometer, consisting of a diffraction grating and a camera, to capture the measurement. Although it is theoretically somewhat complex, the method of generalized projections has proven to be an extremely reliable method for retrieving pulses from FROG traces. Unfortunately, its sophistication is the source of some misunderstanding and mistrust from scientists in the optics community.

Hence, this section will attempt to give some insight into the basic philosophy and implementation of the method, if not its detailed workings. First, imagine a space that contains all possible signal electric fields. For a given measurement, there is a set of these fields that will satisfy the measured FROG trace.

We refer to these fields as satisfying the data constraint. There is another set that consists of the signal fields that can be expressed using the form for the nonlinear interaction used in the measurement. This is referred to as satisfying the mathematical form constraint.

These two sets intersect at exactly one point. There is only one possible signal field that both has the correct intensity to match the data trace and fits the mathematical form dictated by the nonlinear interaction. To find that point, which will give the pulse we are trying to measure, generalized projections is used.

The generalized projections algorithm operates in this electric field space. At each step, we find the closest point to the current guess point that will satisfy the constraint for the other set. This closest point becomes the new current guess, and the closest point on the first set is found.

By alternating between projecting onto the mathematical constraint set and projecting onto the data constraint set, we eventually end up at the solution. Projecting onto the data constraint set is simple. To be in that set, the magnitude squared of the signal field has to match the intensity measured by the trace. Projecting onto the mathematical constraint set is not simple. Unlike the data constraint, there is not an easy way to tell which point in the mathematical constraint set is closest.

A general expression for the distance between the current point and any point in the mathematical constraint set is created, and then that expression is minimized by taking the gradient of that distance with respect the current field guess. This process is discussed in more detail in this paper. This cycle is repeated until the error between the signal guess and the data constraint after applying the mathematical constraint reaches some target minimum value.

A second FROG trace is usually constructed mathematically from the solution and compared with the original measurement. One important feature of a FROG measurement is that many more data points are collected than are strictly necessary to find the pulse electric field.

For example, say that the measured trace consists of points in the delay direction and points in the frequency direction. This is a massively overdetermined system , meaning that the number of equations is much larger than the number of unknowns. Thus the importance of each individual data point being absolutely correct is greatly reduced. This is very helpful for real-world measurements that can be affected by detector noise and systematic errors.

Noise is extremely unlikely to affect the measured trace in a way that could be confused with a physical phenomenon in the pulse. This means that the error between an experimental FROG trace and a retrieved FROG trace is rarely zero, although it should be quite small for traces without systematic errors. Consequently, significant differences between measured and retrieved FROG traces should be investigated.

The experimental setup may be misaligned, or there may be significant spatio-temporal distortions in the pulse. If the measurement averages over several or many pulses, then those pulses may vary significantly from each other.

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