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The Kernel module is included by class Object, so its methods are available in every Ruby object. The Kernel instance methods are documented in class Object while the module methods are documented here. These methods are called without a receiver and thus can be called in functional form:. Returns the canonicalized absolute path of the directory of the file from which this method is called. Converts block to a Proc object and therefore binds it at the point of call and registers it for execution when the program exits.
Registers filename to be loaded using Kernel:: Returns a Binding object, describing the variable and method bindings at the point of call. Returns the current execution stack—an array containing strings in the form file: Replaces the current process by running the given external command , which can take one of the following forms:. For each object, directly writes obj. If called without an argument, or if max. Returns an array containing the lines returned by calling Kernel.
Loads the given name , returning true if successful and false if the feature is already loaded. Establishes proc as the handler for tracing, or disables tracing if the parameter is nil. Suspends the current thread for duration seconds which may be any number, including a Float with fractional seconds.
Calls the operating system function identified by num and returns the result of the function or raises SystemCallError if it failed. Uses the character cmd to perform various tests on file1 first table below or on file1 and file2 second table. Displays each of the given messages followed by a record separator on STDERR unless warnings have been disabled for example with the -W0 flag. Returns the called name of the current method as a Symbol.
If called outside of a method, it returns nil. It means symlinks in the path is resolved. The return value equals to File. Returns the name at the definition of the current method as a Symbol. Returns the standard output of running cmd in a subshell. Terminate execution immediately, effectively by calling Kernel. If multiple handlers are registered, they are executed in reverse order of registration. This object can be used when calling eval to execute the evaluated command in this environment.
See also the description of class Binding. Returns true if yield would execute a block in the current context. Generates a Continuation object, which it passes to the associated block. You need to require 'continuation' before using this method. The value returned by the callcc is the value of the block, or the value passed to cont. See class Continuation for more details. Also see Kernel throw for an alternative mechanism for unwinding a call stack. The optional start parameter determines the number of initial stack entries to omit from the top of the stack.
A second optional length parameter can be used to limit how many entries are returned from the stack. Optionally you can pass a range, which will return an array containing the entries within the specified range. If throw is not called, the block executes normally, and catch returns the value of the last expression evaluated.
When found, the block stops executing and returns val or nil if no second argument was given to throw. When tag is passed as the first argument, catch yields it as the parameter of the block. When no tag is given, catch yields a new unique object as from Object. This object can then be used as the argument to throw , and will match the correct catch block. Evaluates the Ruby expression s in string.
If binding is given, which must be a Binding object, the evaluation is performed in its context. If the optional filename and lineno parameters are present, they will be used when reporting syntax errors. In the first form, the string is taken as a command line that is subject to shell expansion before being executed.
If the string from the first form exec "command" follows these simple rules:. Note that this behavior is observable by pid obtained return value of spawn and IO pid for IO. In the second form exec "command1", "arg1", In the third form exec ["command", "argv0"], "arg1", In order to execute the command, one of the exec 2 system calls are used, so the running command may inherit some of the environment of the original program including open file descriptors.
This behavior is modified by the given env and options parameters. If the command fails to execute typically Errno:: This method modifies process attributes according to given options before exec 2 system call.
Initiates the termination of the Ruby script by raising the SystemExit exception. This exception may be caught. The optional parameter is used to return a status code to the invoking environment. The interpretation of other integer values are system dependent. Exits the process immediately. No exit handlers are run. With a single String argument, raises a RuntimeError with the string as a message. Otherwise, the first parameter should be the name of an Exception class or an object that returns an Exception object when sent an exception message.
The optional second parameter sets the message associated with the exception, and the third parameter is an array of callback information. Exceptions are caught by the rescue clause of begin Returns arg converted to a float. Numeric types are converted directly, the rest are converted using arg. Converting nil generates a TypeError. If a block is specified, that block is run in the subprocess, and the subprocess terminates with a status of zero.
Otherwise, the fork call returns twice, once in the parent, returning the process ID of the child, and once in the child, returning nil. The child process can exit using Kernel. The parent process should use Process. The thread calling fork is the only thread in the created child process. Therefore you should use spawn instead of fork. Within the format string, any characters other than format sequences are copied to the result.
A format sequence consists of a percent sign, followed by optional flags, width, and precision indicators, then terminated with a field type character. The field type controls how the corresponding sprintf argument is to be interpreted, while the flags modify that interpretation.
The field width is an optional integer, followed optionally by a period and a precision. The width specifies the minimum number of characters that will be written to the result for this field. For numeric fields, the precision controls the number of decimal places displayed. For string fields, the precision determines the maximum number of characters to be copied from the string. For more complex formatting, Ruby supports a reference by name. Returns nil at end of file. The optional argument specifies the record separator.
The separator is included with the contents of each record. A separator of nil reads the entire contents, and a zero-length separator reads the input one paragraph at a time, where paragraphs are divided by two consecutive newlines.
If the first argument is an integer, or optional second argument is given, the returning string would not be longer than the given value in bytes. If multiple filenames are present in ARGV , gets nil will read the contents one file at a time. Converts arg to a Hash by calling arg.
Returns an empty Hash when arg is nil or . Converts arg to a Fixnum or Bignum. Numeric types are converted directly with floating point numbers being truncated. If arg is a String , when base is omitted or equals zero, radix indicators 0 , 0b , and 0x are honored. In any case, strings should be strictly conformed to numeric representation. Passing nil raises a TypeError. Loads and executes the Ruby program in the file filename. If the optional wrap parameter is true , the loaded script will be executed under an anonymous module, protecting the calling program's global namespace.
In no circumstance will any local variables in the loaded file be propagated to the loading environment. StopIteration raised in the block breaks the loop.
The mode is either a string or an integer.