Spain - Economic Indicators

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Consumer confidence is an economic indicator that measures the degree of optimism that consumers feel about the overall state of the economy and their personal financial situation. When consumer confidence is high, consumers make more purchases. When confidence is low, consumers tend to save more and spend less.

A month-to-month trend in consumer confidence reflects the outlook of consumers with respect to their ability to find and retain good jobs according to their perception of the current state of the economy and their personal financial situation.

Consumer confidence typically increases when the economy expands, and decreases when the economy contracts. In the United States, there is evidence that the measure is a lagging indicator of stock market performance. Investors, manufacturers, retailers, banks, public opinion researchers and government agencies use various assessments of consumer confidence in planning their actions. The ability to predict major changes in consumer confidence allows businesses to gauge the willingness of consumers to make new purchases.

As a result, businesses can adjust their operations and the government can prepare for changing tax revenue. If confidence is dropping and consumers are expected to reduce their spending, most producers will tend to reduce their production volumes accordingly.

For example, if manufacturers anticipate consumers will reduce retail purchases, especially for expensive and durable goods, they will cut down their inventories in advance and may delay investing in new projects and facilities.

Similarly, if banks expect consumers to decrease their spending, they will prepare for the reduction in lending activities, such as mortgage applications and credit card use.

Builders will plan for the decline in home construction volumes. The government will get ready for the reduction in future tax revenues. On the other hand, if consumer confidence is improving, people are expected to increase their purchases of goods and services. In anticipation of that change, manufacturers can boost production and inventories. Large employers can increase hiring rates.

Builders can prepare for higher housing construction rates. Banks can plan for a rise in demand for credit products. Government can expect improved tax revenues based on the increase in consumer spending. Major drops in the Present Situation Index tend to precede a drop in the business cycle. The economy enters a recession after the Conference Board, Present Situation Index drops by 15 points from its prior year's value.

The CCI is designed to assess the overall confidence, relative financial health and spending power of the US average consumer. The data is calculated for the United States as a whole and for each of the country's nine census regions. The survey consists of five questions on the following topics: After all surveys are collected, each question's positive responses are divided by the sum of its positive and negative responses.

The resulting relative value is then used as an "index value" and compared against each respective monthly value for In that year, the result of the index was arbitrarily set atrepresenting it as index benchmark.

That year was chosen as a benchmark year because it was neither a peak nor trough in the business cycle. The benchmark The index values for all five questions are averaged together to produce the CCI. The average of index values for questions i and iii form the Present Situation Index, and the average of index values for questions ii, iv and v form the Expectations Index. The University of Michigan releases three related figures each month: The most recent data for ICS is published by Reuters here.

Index of Leading Economic Indicators. The Index is aggregated from five questions on the following topics: The ICS is calculated from computing the "relative scores" for each of the five index questions: Each relative score is then rounded to the nearest whole number. All five relative scores are then summed and the sum is divided by 6.

ICC is calculated by dividing the sum of the rounded "relative scores" of the questions one and five by 2. ICE is calculated by dividing the sum of the rounded "relative scores" of the questions two, three, and four by 4. The Bloomberg Consumer Comfort Index represents a four-week rolling average based on telephone interviews a week with adults nationwide, giving a sample size of 1, for each four-week period.

Unlike the other indicators, it measures only current conditions with no questions about expectations. The Index aggregates consumer responses to three questions on the following topics: The Index is derived by subtracting the negative response to each question from the positive response to that question.

The three resulting numbers are then added and divided by three. The Consumer Confidence Average Index CCAI is a monthly indicator that aggregates data from the above three major national polls on consumer confidence. The value 0 of the Consumer Confidence Average represents the lowest value of each index. The value of the Consumer Confidence Average represents the highest value of each index. One question asks Americans to evaluate current economic conditions; the other measures their perceptions of whether the economy is getting better or getting worse.

Gallup has asked the component questions periodically sincemonthly since Octoberand daily since January Gallup reports results of the Economic Confidence Index on Gallup. The first question asks Americans to rate economic conditions in the country today, and second question asks whether they think economic conditions in the country as a whole are getting better or getting worse. The two questions have equal weight in the index, which is reported without revisions or seasonal adjustments.

They can also be analyzed separately, providing insight into changes in the overall index. The survey is conducted with respondents contacted on landlines and cellphones, and includes Spanish-language interviewing.

It is constructed from responses to four attitudinal questions posed to a random sample of Canadian households. Those surveyed are asked to give their views about their households' current and expected financial positions and the short-term employment outlook. They are also asked to assess whether now is a good or a bad time to make a major purchase such as a house, car or other big-ticket items. The CCI is designed to provide reliable insights into the direction of the Indian national and regional economies.

Released once a month, the index is computed from the results of a monthly survey of 4, consumers in 18 cities across India. The Zyfin formerly known as BluFin Consumer Confidence Index was developed by a team of financial economists and statisticians led by Dr. The Israeli consumer confidence index is conducted by Israel's daily Globes and is published monthly by Globes's research unit. The Spanish CCI is made since The CCI is built up from a monthly survey of opinion with implementing standardized telephone questionnaire to a representative sample of the population resident in Spain of individuals over 16 years.

The sampling procedure is multistage, with selection of primary sampling units municipalities in a random proportional to each of the Spanish provinces and the secondary units households from telephone numbers and the last units individuals as cross-gender quotas and age. The CCI-CIS is published on 3th [ clarification needed ] every month or the next working day in case of bank holidays or weekend.

Prior tothere had been no systematic attempt to track and measure consumer confidence around the world. In andGallup collected global economic confidence data through its Gallup World Poll, and analyzed the data from countries surveyed in both years.

Gallup's Economic Confidence Index is based on the combined responses to two questions: The Nielsen Global Consumer Confidence Index measures the confidence, major concerns and spending habits of online consumers in 54 countries on the half-annual basis. The Index is developed based on consumers' confidence in the job market, status of their personal finances and readiness to spend. In April the survey answers included responses from 28, online users.

In the first quarterthree of the best countries are IndiaIndonesiaand Philippines among 60 countries surveyed, while three of the worst countries are Ukraine 41South Korea 46and Serbia The survey is carried out on a monthly basis on behalf of the European Commission, who sponsor the same research in all European Union member countries. The main aim of this research is to monitor the general public's confidence in the British economy.

Each month the survey tracks changes in personal finance, general economic situation, inflation, unemployment, current purchasing climate, consumer spending and saving. Quarterly research tracks car purchasing, home purchasing and home improvements. Subscriptions can also be taken out part way through subscription year Purchase of back-data is also possible.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Indian consumer confidence index. A Useful Indicator of. Consumption Autonomous consumption Induced consumption Consumer culture theory Consumer debt Consumer economy Consumer spending.

Consumer behaviour Consumer choice Consumer economics Consumer neuroscience Consumer product Marketing research. Consumer confidence Consumer confusion Consumer ethnocentrism Consumer socialization Consumer's risk Consumption function Cultural consumer Homo economicus.

Consumers' co-operative Consumer-to-business Factory-to-consumer Consumer service Consumerization. Economic theory Econometrics Applied economics. Behavioral economics Computational economics Econometrics Economic systems Experimental economics Mathematical economics Methodological publications. Ancient economic thought Austrian school of economics Chicago school of economics Classical economics Feminist economics Heterodox economics Institutional economics Keynesian economics Mainstream economics Marxian economics Neoclassical economics Post-Keynesian economics Schools overview.

Notable economists and thinkers within economics. Retrieved from " https: Articles lacking in-text citations from January All articles lacking in-text citations All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 18 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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Here, we describe the design and preparation of the Abz-T compounds, and their effects on CYP707A and CYP701A both in vitro and in vivo. Results Design and synthesis of novel CYP707A inhibitors: Abz-T compounds The 1,2,4-triazolyl ring and the long ethylene glycol chain of Abz-E2B are critical for the effective inhibition of CYP707A. To function as a specific inhibitor of CYP707A, previous studies indicated that an enlarged analogue of UNI requires a longer alkyl chain to increase the selectivity for CYP707A over CYP701A 22.

However, because the longer alkyl chain results in greater hydrophobicity, it was replaced by the ethylene glycol chain 25, 26. It remains unclear whether the 1,2,3-triazolyl ring, which enters the p -position of the phenyl group in UNI by a click reaction 27, of Abz-E2B is required for the selective inhibition of CYP707A.